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key assumptions


In a casual sense, the term "entitlement" refers to a notion or belief that one (or oneself) has a right to some particular reward or benefit —if given without deeper legal or principled cause, the term is often given with pejorative connotation (e.g. a "sense of entitlement").

An expectation about the behavior or performance of another person, expressed to that person, may have the nature of a strong request, or an order.

Collective intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. 

Ultimately, both Pierre Lévy (2007) and Henry Jenkins (2008) support the claim that collective intelligence is important for the process of democratization, as it is interlinked with knowledge-based culture, which is sustained by collective idea sharing, and thus contributes to a better understanding of diverse society among different actors.

 "Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought."[9] Justice can be thought of as distinct frombenevolencecharityprudencemercygenerosity, or compassion, although these dimensions are regularly understood to also be interlinked.

Studies at UCLA in 2008 have indicated that reactions to fairness are "wired" into the brain and that, "Fairness is activating the same part of the brain that responds to food in rats... This is consistent with the notion that being treated fairly satisfies a basic need".[11] Research conducted in 2003 at Emory University involving capuchin monkeys demonstrated that other cooperative animals also possess such a sense and that "inequity aversion may not be uniquely human"[12] indicating that ideas of fairness and justice may be instinctual in nature.

Distributive justice is directed at the proper allocation of things—wealth, power, reward, respect—among different people.

In one sense, all theories of distributive justice claim that everyone should get what they deserve. Theories disagree on the basis for deserving. The main distinction is between theories that argue the basis of just deserts is held equally by everyone, and therefore derive egalitarian accounts of distributive justice—and theories that argue the basis of just deserts is unequally distributed on the basis of, for instance, hard work, and therefore derive accounts of distributive justice by which some should have more than others. This section deals with some popular theories of the second type.

According to meritocratic theories, goods, especially wealth and social status, should be distributed to match individual merit, which is usually understood as some combination of talent and hard work. According to needs-based theories, goods, especially such basic goods as food, shelter and medical care, should be distributed to meet individuals' basic needs for them. Marxism can be regarded as a needs-based theory on some readings of Marx's slogan "from each according to his ability, to each according to his need".[17] According to contribution-based theories, goods should be distributed to match an individual's contribution to the overall social good.


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